May 28, 2024

Zellige Tiles: The Comprehensive Guide

Zellige tiles, a hallmark of Moroccan craftsmanship, are renowned for their vibrant colors, intricate geometric patterns, and unique handcrafted qualities

A Zellige Tile is traditionally made from natural terracotta clay sourced from the rich soils of the Atlas Mountains. This clay, characterized by its high iron content and natural impurities, undergoes a meticulous process of hand-molding, glazing, and kiln firing, resulting in tiles that are both visually stunning and exceptionally durable.

Zellige tiles

Each Zellige tile is crafted by skilled Moroccan artisans who follow antique techniques passed down through generations. This labor-intensive process ensures that every tile is unique, contributing to a mosaic that is rich in texture and color variation. The tiles’ glossy finish, achieved through a specific glazing technique, enhances their aesthetic appeal and adds to their distinctive, luxurious look.

Zellige tiles are not only appreciated for their beauty but also for their practicality. They are incredibly versatile and can be used in a variety of settings, including kitchens, bathrooms, and outdoor spaces. Their durability makes them suitable for both wet and dry environments, while their vibrant colors and intricate patterns add a touch of elegance and cultural depth to any space.

Scientific studies have shown that the terracotta clay used in Zellige tiles has unique properties that contribute to their durability and color. The iron oxide and other minerals present in the clay enhance the tiles’ strength and resistance to wear and tear. This natural composition, combined with the traditional firing methods, results in a tile that is not only beautiful but also built to last.

“Clays from North Africa are suitable for traditional ceramic industry, with Algerian clays needing careful drying and Tunisian and Moroccan clays showing acceptable shaping and drying behavior.”
Mahmoudi, S., & Bennour, A. (2021). Characterisation and ceramic application of clays from North Africa. Applied Earth Science

In the following sections, we will delve deeper into the characteristics and benefits of Zellige tiles, explore the materials and processes involved in their creation, and discuss their various applications and maintenance. We will also look at their historical origins, the cultural significance of their patterns, and compare them with similar materials like Bejmat tiles. Whether you are a homeowner, interior designer, or architect, this comprehensive guide will provide valuable insights into the world of Zellige tiles and their characteristics.

Main Characteristics of Zellige Tiles

Zellij Artisan Craftsmanship

Zellige tiles are handcrafted by skilled Moroccan artisans. Each durable tile is made from natural terracotta clay, which is shaped, dried, cut, and glazed by hand. This traditional method ensures that every tile is unique, with slight variations in shape and finish that highlight the craftsmanship involved.

Visual Appeal

Zellige Visual Appeal

Zellige tiles are known for their vibrant colors, unique shapes, and glossy finish. The colors are created using natural pigments, resulting in rich, varied hues such as deep blues, greens, and earthy tones. These colors can vary slightly from tile to tile, adding to their unique look.

The shapes of Zellige tiles include squares, rectangles, and various geometric forms. These shapes can be arranged in intricate mosaic patterns, enhancing the visual interest of any space. The glossy finish of the tiles reflects light, adding depth, versatility and brightness to the surfaces they cover.

2 Main Benefits of Zellige Tiles

1- Durability of Zellige

Durability refers to the ability of Zellige tiles to withstand wear, pressure, or damage over time, maintaining their structural integrity and appearance under various conditions.

The primary reason for the exceptional durability of Zellige tiles is the high-quality terracotta clay used in their production, combined with the traditional firing process.

How It Is Achieved:

  1. Material Quality: Zellige tiles are made from terracotta clay sourced from specific regions, particularly around Fez in Morocco. This clay is rich in natural minerals, including iron oxide, which contributes to the strength and durability of the tiles.
  2. Handcrafting and Firing: The tiles are meticulously shaped and cut by hand, ensuring consistency in thickness and shape. After shaping, the tiles are left to dry naturally, which prevents cracking. They are then fired in a kiln at high temperatures. This firing process vitrifies the clay, making it hard and resistant to wear.
  3. Glazing: A layer of enamel glaze is applied to the tiles before the final firing. This glaze not only enhances the aesthetic appeal but also adds a protective layer that increases the tiles’ resistance to moisture and other elements.

Studies on terracotta and ceramic materials highlight the importance of mineral composition and firing temperatures in achieving durable products. Research indicates that the high iron oxide content in the clay used for Zellige tiles enhances their mechanical strength and resistance to weathering. Additionally, the traditional kiln firing methods, which reach temperatures sufficient to vitrify the clay, are proven to produce durable ceramic materials.

2- Versatility of each Zellige tile

Versatility refers to the wide range of applications and adaptability of Zellige tiles in different environments, from interior design to exterior architectural elements.

The versatility of Zellige tiles is due to their water-resistant properties, variety of shapes and colors, and the aesthetic appeal they bring to various settings.

How It Is Achieved:

  1. Water Resistance: The glazing process makes Zellige tiles highly resistant to water, which is crucial for their use in wet environments such as bathrooms and kitchens. The glaze creates a non-porous surface that prevents water absorption and damage.
  2. Variety of Designs: Zellige tiles are available in numerous shapes, including squares, rectangles, and intricate geometric patterns. They also come in a wide range of vibrant colors achieved through natural pigments. This variety allows for endless design possibilities, making the tiles suitable for diverse applications.
  3. Handcrafting: The artisanal crafting process allows for custom shapes and sizes, enabling designers to create bespoke patterns and installations that fit specific aesthetic and functional requirements.

Architectural and design studies emphasize the benefits of using glazed terracotta tiles in various settings. Research on ceramic tile applications shows that glazed surfaces are ideal for both indoor and outdoor use due to their durability and water resistance. Studies also highlight the aesthetic flexibility provided by the wide range of available colors and shapes, supporting the versatility of Zellige tiles in design (Source: “Ceramics and Composites Processing Methods” by Narottam P. Bansal and Aldo R. Boccaccini).

Zellige Multiple Applications

By combining the benefits of durability and versatility, Zellige tiles materials provide a reliable and aesthetically pleasing option for a multitude of design applications, ensuring both functional and visual satisfaction.

What are Zellige Tiles Made From?

Origin Materials

Zellige tiles are crafted from high-quality terracotta clay, which is a key factor in their durability and unique appearance. This clay is primarily sourced from the region around the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. The Atlas Mountains, known for their rich geological diversity, provide a clay that is particularly suited for tile-making due to its high iron content and other mineral impurities. 

Atlas Mountains

These natural resources have been used for centuries, contributing to the time-honored tradition of Zellige tile craftsmanship. The clay’s inherent properties, such as its plasticity and workability, make it ideal for shaping and molding into the intricate designs characteristic of Zellige tiles.

Chemistry and Composition of Zellige

The natural composition of the terracotta clay used in Zellige tiles plays a crucial role in their strength, durability, and color.

The primary components of this clay include:

  • Silica (SiO2): Silica is the primary constituent of clay, contributing to its structural integrity and hardness.
  • Alumina (Al2O3): Alumina adds to the clay’s refractory properties, enhancing its ability to withstand high temperatures during the firing process.
  • Iron Oxide (Fe2O3): Iron oxide is responsible for the characteristic reddish-brown color of terracotta. In Zellige tiles, it also contributes to the rich and varied hues that result from the glazing process.
  • Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3): This mineral helps to reduce shrinkage and cracking during the drying and firing stages, improving the overall durability of the tiles.
  • Magnesium and Potassium: These minerals enhance the plasticity of the clay, making it easier to mold and shape into intricate designs.

The combination of these elements results in a clay that is not only easy to work with but also produces tiles that are robust and visually appealing. The high iron content, in particular, gives Zellige tiles their distinctive earthy tones and contributes to the vivid colors achieved through natural pigments and glazing techniques. Additionally, the presence of these minerals ensures that the tiles are resistant to wear and environmental conditions, making them suitable for various applications, both indoors and outdoors.

Understanding the origin materials and chemistry of Zellige tiles highlights why they are both durable and visually striking. The terracotta clay sourced from the Atlas Mountains, with its unique mineral composition, and the processes involved in its creation, ensures that each tile is strong and beautifully colored, suitable for a wide range of design applications.

Process of Creating Zellige Tiles

Manufacturing Process

The creation of Zellige tiles involves a meticulous, multi-step process that combines traditional craftsmanship with natural materials. Here’s a detailed explanation of the key steps involved:

  1. Clay Preparation: The process begins with the extraction of terracotta clay from the Atlas Mountains. This clay is cleaned to remove impurities and then mixed with water to achieve the desired consistency. The prepared clay is then left to rest, allowing it to become more workable.
  2. Shaping: The rested clay is hand-formed into flat slabs, which are then cut into specific shapes such as squares, rectangles, or other geometric patterns using traditional tools. These shapes are often pre-determined based on the design requirements.
  3. Drying: Once shaped, the tiles are laid out to dry naturally in the sun. This step is crucial as it prevents cracking and warping. The drying process can take several days, depending on the weather and humidity levels.
  4. First Firing: After drying, the tiles undergo their first firing in a kiln. This initial firing, known as biscuit firing, hardens the tiles and prepares them for glazing. The temperature and duration of this firing are carefully controlled to ensure uniform hardness.
Handmade Teqniches of Zellige

Handmade Techniques

The handmade techniques used in the creation of Zellige tiles are what give them their distinctive character and authenticity. Each tile is individually crafted by skilled artisans, ensuring that no two tiles are exactly alike. The artisans use simple, traditional tools to shape and cut the tiles, which requires a high level of precision and expertise. This artisanal approach results in slight variations in size, shape, and finish, contributing to the unique aesthetic of Zellige tiles. The entire process is labor-intensive and time-consuming, reflecting the dedication and craftsmanship that goes into making each tile.

Coating Process

The coating process involves the application of enamel glaze, which is a crucial step in enhancing the aesthetic and functional qualities of Zellige tiles. Here’s how it works:

  1. Glazing: After the initial firing, the tiles are coated with a layer of enamel glaze. This glaze is made from natural pigments and minerals, which are carefully mixed to achieve the desired color and consistency.
  2. Application: The glaze is applied by hand, ensuring an even coat that covers the entire surface of the tile. This step requires precision to avoid any drips or uneven areas that could affect the final appearance.
  3. Second Firing: The glazed tiles are then fired a second time in the kiln. This firing melts the glaze, creating a glass-like surface that is both shiny and durable. The high temperatures involved in this process ensure that the glaze fuses properly with the clay body, enhancing the tile’s resistance to water and stains.

The enamel glaze not only provides a protective layer that improves the tile’s durability but also enhances its visual appeal by adding depth and vibrancy to the colors. The glossy finish achieved through glazing reflects light, giving the tiles a luminous quality that makes them stand out in any setting.

Coated Zellige

The process of creating Zellige tiles is a blend of traditional craftsmanship and meticulous attention to detail. From the preparation of the clay to the final firing, each step is carefully executed to produce tiles that are both beautiful and durable. The handmade techniques and unique glazing process ensure that every Zellige tile is a work of art, embodying the rich cultural heritage of Moroccan craftsmanship.

Properties of Zellige Tiles

Colors and Tones of Zellige Tiles

Zellige tiles are renowned for their rich and varied color palette, achieved through the use of natural pigments and traditional glazing techniques. Here’s an overview of the common and popular colors:

  • White Zellige Tiles: Representing purity and simplicity, white Zellige tiles are often used to create a clean and bright space. They reflect light beautifully, enhancing the luminosity of the room.
  • Black Zellige Tiles: These tiles add a touch of elegance and sophistication. Black Zellige tiles are perfect for creating dramatic contrasts and modern, sleek designs,
  • Blue Zellige Tiles: Symbolizing tranquility and depth, blue Zellige tiles come in shades ranging from light sky blue to deep navy. They are ideal for adding a serene and calming effect to interiors.
  • Green Zellige Tiles: Green Zellige tiles evoke a sense of nature and harmony. Available in various shades like mint, emerald, and forest green, they bring a refreshing and vibrant feel to any space.
  • Red Zellige Tiles: These tiles are associated with warmth and energy. Red Zellige tiles can range from soft terracotta to bold crimson, perfect for creating a cozy and inviting atmosphere.
  • Yellow Zellige Tiles: Symbolizing cheerfulness and brightness, yellow Zellige tiles are available in hues from pale lemon to deep mustard. They add a sunny and vibrant touch to any design.
  • Brown Zellige Tiles: Earthy and grounded, brown Zellige tiles include shades like beige, tan, and chocolate. They provide a natural and rustic look, ideal for traditional or country-style decor.
  • Gray Zellige Tiles: Versatile and modern, gray Zellige tiles come in various shades from light ash to dark charcoal. They are perfect for neutral backgrounds or contemporary designs.

Multicolor Zellige Tiles: Combining various colors, these tiles create intricate patterns and mosaics, adding a unique and artistic touch to any space.

Glossy Finish

Zellige tiles are most commonly known for their characteristic glossy finish, which enhances their aesthetic appeal by reflecting light and adding depth to the colors. The glossy surface is achieved through the application of enamel glaze, which is then fired at high temperatures to create a glass-like sheen. This finish not only adds a luxurious look but also provides a protective layer that makes the tiles resistant to water and stains.

However, there are also unglazed or natural Zellige tiles available. These tiles have a matte finish and offer a more rustic and understated look. The natural finish showcases the raw beauty of the terracotta clay and is perfect for creating a more organic and earthy aesthetic.


Zellige tiles are available in a variety of shapes, each offering unique design possibilities and applications. Here’s a detailed list of the different shapes and their uses:

  • Square Zellige Tiles: The most traditional shape, square Zellige tiles are versatile and can be used in a variety of patterns, such as checkerboard or diagonal layouts.
  • Rectangle Zellige Tiles: These tiles are perfect for creating herringbone or brick-like patterns. Rectangular Zellige tiles add a modern and dynamic touch to any space.
  • Hexagon Zellige Tiles: With their six sides, hexagon Zellige tiles create a honeycomb effect, adding geometric interest and complexity to the design.
  • Triangle Zellige Tiles: Triangular Zellige tiles can be arranged in various ways to create intricate and unique patterns, making them ideal for artistic and bespoke installations.
  • Diamond Zellige Tiles: These tiles add a touch of elegance and can be used to create star-like patterns or to add dimension to a surface.
  • Fish Scale Zellige Tiles: Also known as mermaid tiles, these are shaped like scales and are perfect for creating wave-like, flowing patterns, especially in bathrooms or kitchens.
  • Star Zellige Tiles: Featuring a star shape, these tiles are often used as decorative accents within larger mosaics, adding a focal point to the design.
  • Cross Zellige Tiles: These tiles are shaped like crosses and are used to create intricate and interlocking patterns, adding a traditional and historical touch.

Each shape of Zellige tiles can be used creatively to enhance the visual interest and uniqueness of a space, allowing for endless design possibilities.

Quality and Pricing

Artisan Quality of Zellige Tiles

Zellige tiles are renowned for their handcrafted quality, which is a significant aspect of their charm and value. Each tile is meticulously made by skilled Moroccan artisans who follow traditional methods passed down through generations. The process involves hand-molding, hand-cutting, and hand-glazing the tiles, ensuring that each one is unique. This labor-intensive craftsmanship results in slight variations in color, texture, and shape, giving Zellige tiles their distinctive, authentic look. The imperfections and organic feel of these tiles are celebrated characteristics, reflecting their handmade origin and artisanal quality.

Pricing of Zellige Tiles

The pricing of Zellige tiles varies based on several factors, including the intricacy of the design, the quality of materials, and the labor involved in their creation. Authentic Zellige tiles typically cost more than mass-produced tiles due to their handcrafted nature and the detailed work required to produce each tile. On average, authentic Zellige tiles can range from $15 to $30 per square foot, depending on the supplier and specific characteristics of the tiles.

Factors contributing to the cost include:

  • Artisanal Creation: The manual labor and time-intensive processes involved in crafting each tile add to the overall cost.
  • Material Quality: High-quality terracotta clay sourced from specific regions like Fez in Morocco is used, which is more expensive than standard ceramic materials.
  • Import Costs: As these tiles are often imported from Morocco, shipping and handling fees also contribute to the price.
  • Customization: Custom shapes, colors, and intricate designs can increase the price, reflecting the bespoke nature of the tiles.

Overall, while the investment in Zellige tiles may be higher compared to other tile options, their unique aesthetic, durability, and cultural significance make them a valuable addition to any design project.


Design Impact

Zellige tiles significantly enhance the aesthetic appeal of any space due to their unique handcrafted appearance and reflective qualities. Each tile’s slight imperfections and variations in color and texture create a dynamic visual effect, adding depth and character to surfaces. The glossy finish of Zellige tiles reflects light beautifully, creating a luminous ambiance that can brighten and enliven interiors. This reflective quality, combined with the vibrant colors and intricate patterns, makes Zellige tiles a focal point in any design, whether used for walls, backsplashes, or flooring.

Patterns and Design 

Cultural and Geometric Significance

Zellige tiles are deeply rooted in Moroccan and Islamic art traditions, characterized by their geometric patterns and cultural symbolism. These patterns are not only aesthetically pleasing but also carry significant cultural and spiritual meanings. Islamic design principles, which often feature repetitive geometric motifs, are integral to Zellige aesthetics. These designs symbolize the infinite nature of creation and the interconnectedness of life. The meticulous arrangement of geometric shapes in Zellige tiles reflects the precision and beauty of Islamic art, making them a timeless and culturally rich choice for modern interiors.

Patterns and Design 

Origin and History of Zellige Tiles

Etymology and Historical Origin

The term “Zellige” derives from the Arabic word “al-zillij,” which means “polished stone.” Zellige tiles originated in Morocco around the 10th century, influenced by Byzantine mosaics and Islamic art. They became a significant element in Moroccan architecture, adorning palaces, mosques, and madrasas. The intricate geometric patterns and vibrant colors of Zellige tiles reflect the cultural and artistic heritage of Morocco, showcasing the country’s rich history and architectural evolution.

Ancient Techniques

Traditional methods of making Zellige tiles have been preserved for centuries, maintaining their artisanal quality and cultural significance. Artisans use high-quality terracotta clay, shaping and glazing each tile by hand. The tiles are then fired in kilns, a process that has changed little over the centuries. These ancient techniques ensure that each tile is unique, embodying the craftsmanship and authenticity that make Zellige tiles highly valued in contemporary design.

The historical significance and traditional craftsmanship of Zellige tiles contribute to their enduring appeal and cultural richness in modern architecture.

Applications of Zellige Tiles

Zellige tiles are incredibly versatile and can be used in a variety of settings to enhance both aesthetic and functional aspects. In kitchens, they make stunning backsplashes, adding a touch of artistry and a reflective surface that brightens the space. Bathrooms benefit from Zellige tiles in showers and walls, where their water-resistant properties and vibrant colors create a spa-like atmosphere.

In living spaces, Zellige tiles can be used for accent walls, fireplaces, and even flooring, bringing warmth and texture. Outdoors, they are ideal for decorating fountains, garden walls, and patios, adding a traditional Moroccan flair that withstands weather conditions. Additionally, they are used in pools and pool surrounds, where their durability and glossy finish provide a luxurious look. These applications highlight the flexibility and enduring beauty of Zellige tiles in both residential and commercial projects.

Zellige tiles are suitable for diverse applications ranging from indoor decor to outdoor enhancements, making them a favorite choice for designers looking to incorporate traditional artistry with modern utility.

How to and Maintenance

Installation and Care

Installing Zellige tiles requires precision and expertise due to their handcrafted nature and slight irregularities. It’s recommended to hire professionals for installation to ensure a seamless fit. Basic steps include preparing the surface, using appropriate adhesives, and carefully placing each tile. Maintenance involves regular cleaning with a mild soap and water solution. Avoid abrasive cleaners to preserve the glaze and prevent damage. Proper sealing can also enhance their longevity and resistance to moisture and stains. For more detailed guidelines, refer to our installation and care guide.


Notable providers of Zellige tiles include Paris Tiles, Mosaic Factory, Cle Tile, and The Tile Shop, each offering a wide range of colors and shapes. Pricing is influenced by factors such as the quality of craftsmanship, materials used, and import costs. Authentic Zellige tiles tend to be more expensive due to their handmade nature and the labor-intensive process involved in their production. Availability can vary, so it’s essential to check with suppliers for stock and lead times..

Similarities and Alternatives to Zellige

Comparison with Similar Materials

Zellige tiles and Bejmat tiles share similarities in their handcrafted production and use of terracotta clay. However, Zellige tiles are typically glazed, giving them a glossy finish, while Bejmat tiles are unglazed, resulting in a more rustic look. Zellige tiles are often used for decorative purposes due to their vibrant colors and reflective qualities, whereas Bejmat tiles are preferred for flooring and more subdued applications. In terms of cost, Bejmat tiles are generally less expensive due to the simpler production process. For a detailed comparison, see our Zellige vs. Bejmat guide.